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                Alumni of Aligarh Muslim University (India)
         Muslims Scientist during Muslims Rule over World 
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In the domain of trigonometry, the theory of Sine, Cosine and tangent is an heirloom of the Arabs. The brilliant epochs of Peurbach, of Regiomontanus, of Copernicus, cannot be recalled without reminding us of the fundamental and preparatory labor of the Arab Mathematician (Al-Battani, 858-929 A.D.)."
                     - Joseph Hell in the "Arab Civilization"

Ibn Al-Wahshiya Agriculturist
Abu Ali Al-Hasan Ibn Al-Hyatham (Alhazen) Physics, Optics, Mathematics.
Abd Al-Malik Ibn Quraib Al-Asmai Zoology, Botany, Animal Husbandry.
Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Jabir  Al-Battani (Albatenius) Astronomy, mathematics, Trigonometry.
Ala ad-din Abu Al-ala Ali  Ad-Dimashqi Ibn An-Nafis  Anatomy
Nur Al-Din Ibn Ishaq Al-Bitruji (Alpetragius) Medicine, Ophthalmology, Smallpox, Chemistry, Astronomy.


Ibn Wahshiyah 


Middle Eastern agriculturist and toxicologist alleged to have written al-Fillahah an-Nabatiyah ("Nabatean Agriculture"), a major treatise dealing with plants, water sources and quality, weather conditions, the causes of deforestation, soils and their improvement, crop cultivation, and other similar subjects. The Arabic text of Ibn al-'Awwam, who flourished in the second half of the 12th century, became a basic resource for later treatments such as that by the Muslim agriculturalist. .

Abu Ali Al-Hasan Ibn Al-Hyatham(Alhazen)


Full name ABU 'ALI AL-HASAN IBN AL-HAYTHAM , great mathematician and physicist who made the first significant contributions to optical theory since the time of Ptolemy (flourished 2nd century). In his treatise on optics, translated into Latin in 1270 as Opticae thesaurus Alhazeni libri vii, Alhazen published theories on refraction, reflection, binocular vision, focussing with lenses, the rainbow, parabolic and spherical mirrors, spherical aberration, atmospheric refraction, and the apparent increase in size of planetary bodies near the Earth's horizon. He was first to give an accurate account of vision, correctly stating that light comes from the object seen to the eye. 

Abd Al-Malik Ibn Quraib Al-Asmai


Abd al-Malik ibn al-Quraib al-Asmai was born in Basrah in 740 C.E. He was a philologist who made important contributions to Zoology, Botany, and Animal Husbandry. He was a pious Arab and a good student of Arabic poetry. Al-Asmai is considered as the first Muslim scientist who contributed to Zoology, Botany and Animal Husbandry. His famous writings include Kitab al-Ibil, Kitab al-Khalil, Kitab al-Wuhush, Kitab al-Sha, and Kitab Khalq al-Insan. The last book on human anatomy demonstrates his considerable knowledge and expertise on the subject. Al-Asmai died in 828 C.E.

Interest in breeding of horses and camels was responsible for systematic scientific work by the Arabs as early as seventh century. During the Umayyad Caliphate, behavior and classification of animals and plants were studied and recorded by several scientists. Al-Asmai's work was very popular among scientists of the ninth and tenth century.

Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Jabir  Al-Battani (Albatenius)


in or near Haran, near Urfa, Syria--d. 929, near Samarra`, Iraq), Arab astronomer and mathematician who refined existing values for the length of the year and of the seasons, for the
annual precession of the equinoxes, and for the inclination of the ecliptic. He showed that the
position of the Sun's apogee, or farthest point from the Earth, is variable and that annular (central
but incomplete) eclipses of the Sun are possible. He improved Ptolemy's astronomical calculations
by replacing geometrical methods with trigonometry. From 877 he carried out many years of
remarkably accurate observations at ar-Raqqah in Syria.

Al-Battani was the best known of Arab astronomers in Europe during the Middle Ages. His
principal written work, a compendium of astronomical tables, was translated into Latin in about
1116 and into Spanish in the 13th century. A printed edition, under the title De motu stellarum
("On Stellar Motion"), was published in 1537.

Ala ad-din Abu Al-ala Ali  Ad-Dimashqi Ibn An-Nafis 


AD-DIMASHQI IBN AN-NAFIS (d. 1288), Arab physician who first described the pulmonary
circulation of the blood. In finding that the wall between the right and left ventricles of the heart is
solid and without pores, he disputed Galen's view that the blood passes directly from the right to the
left side of the heart. Ibn an-Nafis correctly stated that the blood must pass from the right ventricle
to the left ventricle by way of the lungs. But the significance of his statement remained unheeded,
and, in fact, was probably unknown by physicians in western countries. It was only in the 20th
century that his work was brought to light. Ibn an-Nafis studied in Damascus under the physician
ad-Dakhwar and went to Egypt to take charge of the Nasiri Hospital in Cairo. He wrote treatises
on eye diseases and diet and commentaries on medical writings of Hippocrates, Avicenna, and
Hunayn ibn Ishaq.

Nur al-Din Ibn Ishaq Al-bitruji (Alpetragius)


Nur al-Din Ibn Ishaq Al-bitruji, known in the West as Alpetragius, was born in Morocco. He later migrated to Spain and lived in Seville (Arabic Isbiliah). He died at the beginning of the thirteenth century around 1204 C.E.

Al-Bitruji was a leading astronomer of his time. His 'Kitab-al-Hay'ah was popular in Europe in the thirteenth century. It was first translated into Hebrew and then from Hebrew into Latin. The Latin edition of his book was printed in Vienna in 1531 C.E. He attempted to modify Ptolemy's system of planetary motions, but was unsuccessful primarily because he followed Aristotle's notion of 'perfect' (circular) motion. However, other Spanish Arab astronomers have suggested an elliptical orbit for planetary motion.

Beer and Madler in their famous work Der Mond (1837) mention a surface feature of the moon after Al-Bitruji (Alpetragius). It is a crater twenty-six miles in diameter in the eighth section of the lunar chart. It has a small conical peak at its center and its terraced perpendicular walls and surrounding plain shine with noticeable brightness.

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