Alumni of Aligarh Muslim University (India) Muslims Scientist during Muslims Rule over World
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In the domain of trigonometry,
the theory of Sine, Cosine and tangent is an heirloom of the Arabs. The
brilliant epochs of Peurbach, of Regiomontanus, of Copernicus, cannot be
recalled without reminding us of the fundamental and preparatory labor of the
Arab Mathematician (Al-Battani,
- Joseph Hell in the "Arab Civilization"
|Abu Ali Al-Hasan Ibn Al-Hyatham (Alhazen)||Physics, Optics, Mathematics.|
|Abd Al-Malik Ibn Quraib Al-Asmai||Zoology, Botany, Animal Husbandry.|
|Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Jabir Al-Battani (Albatenius)||Astronomy, mathematics, Trigonometry.|
|Ala ad-din Abu Al-ala Ali Ad-Dimashqi Ibn An-Nafis||Anatomy|
|Nur Al-Din Ibn Ishaq Al-Bitruji (Alpetragius)||Medicine, Ophthalmology, Smallpox, Chemistry, Astronomy.|
Middle Eastern agriculturist and toxicologist alleged to have written al-Fillahah
an-Nabatiyah ("Nabatean Agriculture"), a major treatise dealing with plants, water sources and
quality, weather conditions, the causes of deforestation, soils and their improvement, crop
cultivation, and other similar subjects. The Arabic text of Ibn al-'Awwam, who flourished in the second
half of the 12th century, became a basic resource for later treatments such as that by the Muslim
Full name ABU 'ALI AL-HASAN IBN AL-HAYTHAM , great mathematician and physicist who made the first significant contributions to optical theory
since the time of Ptolemy (flourished 2nd century). In his treatise on optics, translated into
Latin in 1270 as Opticae thesaurus Alhazeni libri vii, Alhazen published theories on refraction,
reflection, binocular vision, focussing with lenses, the rainbow, parabolic and spherical mirrors,
spherical aberration, atmospheric refraction, and the apparent increase in size of planetary bodies
near the Earth's horizon. He was first to give an accurate account of vision, correctly stating that light
comes from the object seen to the eye.
Abd al-Malik ibn al-Quraib al-Asmai was born in Basrah in 740 C.E. He was a
philologist who made important contributions to Zoology, Botany, and Animal
Husbandry. He was a pious Arab and a good student of Arabic poetry. Al-Asmai
is considered as the first Muslim scientist who contributed to Zoology, Botany
and Animal Husbandry. His famous writings include Kitab al-Ibil, Kitab
al-Khalil, Kitab al-Wuhush, Kitab al-Sha, and Kitab Khalq al-Insan. The last
book on human anatomy demonstrates his considerable knowledge and expertise on
the subject. Al-Asmai died in 828 C.E.
Interest in breeding of horses and camels was responsible for systematic
scientific work by the Arabs as early as seventh century. During the Umayyad
Caliphate, behavior and classification of animals and plants were studied and
recorded by several scientists. Al-Asmai's work was very popular among
scientists of the ninth and tenth century.
The full name ABU ABD ALLAH MUHAMMAD IBN JABIR IBN SINAN AL-BATTANI
Full name 'ALA`AD-DIN ABU AL-'ALA` 'ALI IBN ABI AL-HARAM AL-QURAYSHI|
AD-DIMASHQI IBN AN-NAFIS (d. 1288), Arab physician who first described the pulmonary
circulation of the blood. In finding that the wall between the right and left ventricles of the heart is
solid and without pores, he disputed Galen's view that the blood passes directly from the right to the
left side of the heart. Ibn an-Nafis correctly stated that the blood must pass from the right ventricle
to the left ventricle by way of the lungs. But the significance of his statement remained unheeded,
and, in fact, was probably unknown by physicians in western countries. It was only in the 20th
century that his work was brought to light. Ibn an-Nafis studied in Damascus under the physician
ad-Dakhwar and went to Egypt to take charge of the Nasiri Hospital in Cairo. He wrote treatises
on eye diseases and diet and commentaries on medical writings of Hippocrates, Avicenna, and
Hunayn ibn Ishaq.
Nur al-Din Ibn Ishaq Al-bitruji, known
in the West as Alpetragius, was born in Morocco. He later migrated to
Spain and lived in Seville (Arabic Isbiliah). He died at the beginning of the
thirteenth century around 1204 C.E.
Al-Bitruji was a leading astronomer of his time. His 'Kitab-al-Hay'ah was popular in Europe in the thirteenth century. It was first translated into Hebrew and then from Hebrew into Latin. The Latin edition of his book was printed in Vienna in 1531 C.E. He attempted to modify Ptolemy's system of planetary motions, but was unsuccessful primarily because he followed Aristotle's notion of 'perfect' (circular) motion. However, other Spanish Arab astronomers have suggested an elliptical orbit for planetary motion.
Beer and Madler in their famous work Der Mond (1837) mention a surface feature of the moon after Al-Bitruji (Alpetragius). It is a crater twenty-six miles in diameter in the eighth section of the lunar chart. It has a small conical peak at its center and its terraced perpendicular walls and surrounding plain shine with noticeable brightness.